By Dr. Loveson Lakhani
Anthrax is an infectious disease that occurs with bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. When bacteria enter into the animal’s body it shows the symptoms between a day one to two months. This bacterium goes through three pathways in the body – through the skin, the mouth and the lungs. Swelling occurs at the site of the injection.
This disease spreads from one animal to another or from animal to human via the Bacterium Spore. Humans who work with infected animals and or humans, they may be infected with this disease therefore they should be careful by such infected animals.
The bacteria kill the animal in a very short time. Anthrax disease occurs most often in herbivorous animals because they over-utilize grass and when they are grazing at pasture the spores that are present on the ground and are eaten by animals, enter through any wound in the mouth and move towards the blood streams and cause significant damage to animals.
When an animal dies of this disease it contains bacteria in the tissue of the animal. This bacterium produces spores when it appears in oxygen within a few hours after the animal dies.
This disease is so dangerous that the animal dies before the symptoms appear. Some animals may show symptoms such as severe fever, loss of appetite, vomiting, severe stomach pain, neck-swelling , bloody diarrhea, wounds on the skin, swelling of the wound that turns into blisters, cough, pain in the muscles, throat sore, shoulders pain, short breathing, tiredness, abdomen pain, death of the animal. Blackish blood flows from the animal’s mouth, nose and other orifices.
For animal testing we need to perform all tests including blood test, stool test, chest X-ray and endoscopy.
Treatment for this disease depends on whether the symptoms appear or not. This disease is so dangerous that it does not have the opportunity to be treated because the bacteria kills the animal as soon as possible but if the symptoms appear then it can be treated with antibiotics through intravenous but carefully because these bacteria are present in the blood and can make you sick. We can also inject the Ciproflaxin and doxycline.
We must provide vaccines for our animals at the time of vaccination. The name of the vaccine is the “Anthrax Spore Vaccine” which gives 1cc in the subcutaneous route. The dead animal must be burnt in fire or bury in the ground so that it cannot harm any other healthy animal or human.