The incidence Colorectal Cancer is higher in men than women. In men, it ranges from 48.3 to 72.5 per 100,000 per year while in women, it ranges from 32.3 to 56 per 100,000 per year. The same trend is seen in population-based studies including Pakistan.
Colorectal Cancer Awareness Campaign has been launched during current month of March
Dr. Mohammad Masood
Colorectal Cancer is the fourth leading cause of Cancer Death worldwide. In the United States, Colorectal Cancer (CRC) ranks second to lung cancer as a cause of cancer mortality and is the third most commonly occurring cancer in men and women. The incidence is higher in men than women. In men, it ranges from 48.3 to 72.5 per 100,000 per year while in women, it ranges from 32.3 to 56 per 100,000 per year. The same trend is seen in population-based studies including Pakistan.
CRC has several risk factors, of which important are obesity, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, excessive alcohol, low fiber, high fat diet, age, positive family history, polyposis syndromes, and inflammatory bowel disease.
Symptoms may range from abdominal pain, constipation, alternating bowel habits, bleeding per rectum, weight loss, anemia, increasing urgency, and prostate symptoms.
Recent studies highlighted the rising incidence of CRC in younger individuals less than 50 years of age. American cancer society and American College of Gastroenterology recommended CRC screening in average-risk individuals from age 45 to reduce the risk of Adenoma, CRC, and mortality from CRC.
Most CRCs develop through the Adenoma to Carcinoma sequence, presenting opportunities to prevent cancer by removing precursor lesions.
The ideal screening test should be noninvasive, have high sensitivity and specificity, be safe, available, convenient, and inexpensive. The approach is divided into two steps. In one step, Colonoscopy, which is diagnostic as well as therapeutic. In two steps, that require colonoscopy if positive findings on fecal test FIT, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and CT Colonography or Colon capsule. All endoscopists performing colonoscopy should measure their cecal intubation rate, adenoma detection rate, and withdrawal time.
For the awareness of CRC, we the health care workers, gastroenterologists need to do campaigns and aware the public via civil society, print, electronic, and social media forums to emphasize screening colonoscopy starting from age 45. Specific objectives aim is awareness of warning signs and symptoms, knowledge of risk factors associated with CRC, and confidence in noticing warning signs.